Olive will be going to Nose Hil Park soon. She got a spiked collar on her Birthday for protection. Is this collar protective enough? Are there other steps I need to take to protect Olive from predators and aggresive dogs?
In small dogs it's not uncommon for the little dog to be bitten from the top, puncturing the lungs. That's why a lot of dogs wear a vest that have spikes like a dragon on the back. So the collar will only do so much. The vest also only does so much. Keeping your dog on leash, have a weapon. Be ready to use it.
I'm not sure of Candian laws, but I'd just bring whatever the longest legal pocket knife. Chances are pretty slim that you'll run into anything.
My friend worked for NOVA for a few years mapping remote streams in Washington and had stories about being chased up a tree by a moose, hearing momma bears click their jaws, and coming face to face with a cougar lol. "If that cougar came for me, I was going to give him my forarm arm and just slash his throat with the other to show him who real apex predator is."
Unfortunately no. Coyotes are a growing problem in Canadian cities which keep expanding into their territory. I saw many in the GTA when I lived there, and when I lived in Alberta as a child, they were regular visitors to our backyard. My last camping trip, we had one wailing within visible distance of our tent (a friend got out, saw it, shooed it away). I occasionally hear them here, and someone in town with a small dog recently had one jump their fence and put tracks in their yard. As a young child, we had two dogs who regularly went coyote hunting.
A pocket knife isn't fast enough for an ambush predator. They typically attack from a bush, or lead a friendly dog away with play bows, then jump them as a group once a bit further. It's grab and drag.
The most effective way to keep your dog safe is to keep it on a leash so it doesn't wander near where predators can grab it. I would hope a walking stick could help deter another dog from attacking while your walking. We also have coyotes, though this year I haven't yet heard them around and I live in a suburb that is becoming more and more city, we do have protected land surrounding one area as a primate center. January is mating season for coyotes and this is the month when we usually see them appearing. I also have hawks that nest each year in my backyard, a little piece of green space. I never ever leave any of my pets outdoors unattended. I have lived in both city and rural and usually have something lying around the yard, just in case I need it. When I was walking more I started carrying a pet convincer, nothing more than a burst of air but its usually enough to get a loose dog to move away. I used it several times when one approaches us and also when a biker was allowing his dog into my space, being his dog was at my ankle. He wasn't pleased, lol but it taught him a lesson that I could have had pepper spray, and he should simply control his dog or stay home.